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The Event/Conference:
(2002) Welding Technology Institute of Australia (WTIA) Pipeline SMART Group conference

Standards and templates for commercial conditions in the Construction Industry.


This paper introduces the concept of contracting in the construction industry. The concepts are applicable to design, building, construction, supply, installation and maintenance contracts.

It identifies that contracts are generally broken down into the commercial conditions and the technical specification.

The paper focuses on the commercial conditions section of the contract. It identifies that these conditions are then often broken down into general and special (particular) conditions. The paper then discusses how clients typically develop these two sections.

In exploring the general conditions section, the paper summaries the available industry standards developed by (hotlinks included):

  • International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) (acronym for the French title)
  • Standards Australia International (SAI)
  • Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA)
  • Master Builders Australia (MBA)
  • Property Council of Australia (PCA) (previously known as the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA)) and
  • Housing Industry Association (HIA)


Contract, tender, construction industry, design, build, construct, supply, install, maintain, commercial conditions, general conditions of contract, special conditions of contract, technical specification, specification templates, International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC), Standards Australia International (SAI), Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA), Master Builders Australia (MBA), Property Council of Australia (PCA), Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA), Housing Industry Association (HIA).


See below for a full likst

Opportunities For You Today:

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Keynote/Whitepaper References:

1. Risk Handbook, 3ed, 1995/1996, Interdata
2. A A Kwake, 1994, Understanding tendering & estimating, Gower
3. B.S. Dhillon, Engineering Management, 1987, Technomic Publishing, Company
4. Rory Burke, Project Management, 1995, Management Press
5. John F. James, Contract management in Australia, 1995, Harper Educational
6. Dr John Blakemore, Quality Habits of Best Business Practice, 1995, MASC Publishing

7. Margret McAllister, The Law Handbook of NSW, 7th Ed, 1999, Redfern Legal Centre Publishing
8. DJ Cremean, Brooking on Building Contracts, 3rd ed, 1995, Butterworths
9. Ian Bailey, Construction law in Australia, 2ed, 1998, LBC
10. Lolita Mohyla, Construction in Australia, 1996, LBC
11. Dorter and Sharkey, Building and Construction Contracts in Australia; Law and Practice; (2 Vols, The Law Book Company)
12. May, Keating on Building Contracts; 6th Ed; (Sweet & Maxwell
13. Cullen, Davenport and Donovan, Building contracts Australia (Butterworths)
14. J Bowen, The Macquarie Easy Guide to Australian Law , 1987, Macquarie Library
15. Robert Watt, Concise Legal Research, 1993 The Federation Press
16. R Desiatnik, Guide to building licensing laws in New South Wales, 1996 LBC
17. Christopher Enright, Studying Law, 2nd Ed, Braxton Press, 1987
18. D Khoury, YS Yamouni, Understanding contract law, 2nd Ed, Butterworths, 1989
19. J Crawford, Australian Courts of law, 2 Ed, Oxford University Press, 1991
20. WTMajor, The law of contract, 6th Ed, M&E Handbooks,1986
21. R Bartley, The court is open, Petty Publication, 1979

Standards Australia
22. HB107—1998 Understanding Standards
23. HB 4—1992 Register of Australian Standards referenced in State and Commonwealth Legislation
24. AS 1057—1985 Quality assurance and quality control – Glossary of terms
25. HB 23—1992 TACT, Thesaurus of Australian construction terms
26. HB 24—1992 Symbols and abbreviations for building and construction
27. HB 25—1992 Australian Building and construction definitions
28. HB 50—1994 Glossary of building terms
29. HB 50 Supplement 1—1997 Glossary of building terms – Facility management terms (Supplement to HB50—1994)
30. AS 4120—1994 Code of tendering
31. 2125—1986 General conditions of tendering and form of tender
32. AS 4301—1995 General conditions of tendering and tender form for design and construct contract
33. AS 2124—1992 General conditions of Contract
34. AS 2124—1986 General conditions of Contract
35. AS 2545—1993 Subcontract Conditions
36. AS 2545—1987 Subcontract Conditions
37. AS 4000—1997 General Conditions of Contract
38. AS 4901—1998 Subcontract Conditions
39. AS 4300—1995 General Conditions of contract for design and construct
40. AS 4303—1995 General conditions of subcontract for design and construct
41. AS 4902—2000 General conditions of contract for design and construct
42. HB 54—1994 Subcontract conditions (AS 2545—1993) – User guide
43. AS 2987—1987 General conditions of contract for the supply of equipment with or without installation
44. AS 3556—1988 General conditions of contract for the supply of equipment
45. AS 4305—1996 Minor works contract conditions
46. HB 42–1992 General conditions of contract (AS 2124—1992)-User guide
47. HB 57—1994 User’s manual for lump sum contract based on AS 2124—1992
48. HB 60.2—1993 Australian Domestic Contracts Manual (ADCM), Standards Australia, Master Builders Australia
49. MP 65—1992 Lump sum Contracts for building works with administration by the Proprietor
50. AS 3806—1998 Compliance programs
51. HB 133—1999 A guide to AS 3806—1998 Compliance programs
52. AS 1181—1982 Method of measurement of civil engineering works and associated building works
53. AS 2587—1983 Network planning
54. AS 2443—1981 Glossary of terms for the use of network planning in the building and construction industry

Construction Information Systems CIS Specification Templates for
55. Tendering Nov 1997
56. Preliminaries (AS 2124) Jan 1999
57. Package Definitions, Nov 1996
58. General requirements, Nov 1997
59. Quality, May 1997
60. Specifying Buildings, John Gelder, 1995, Natspec

National Public Works Council (NWPC)
61. General Conditions of Contract, NPWC Ed 3, 1991

Australian Procurement & Construction Council (APCC)
62. National Code of Practice for the Construction Industry, 1997 and 1999
63. Construct Australia, Building a better construction industry in Australia, Perth, 1997
64. National action on small to medium enterprises in government procurement, Perth, 1997
65. Delivering opportunities for small and medium enterprise – In government procurement and contracting, 1998

Construction Industry Development Agency (CIDA)
66. CIDA 03—1993 Building Best Practice in the Construction Industry – A Practitioner’s Guide
67. CIDA 09—1994 Building Best Practice in the Construction Industry – Overview for Clients, Consultants and Contractors
68. CIDA 10—1994 Construction Industry Project Initiation Guide for Project Sponsors, Clients and Owners

NSW Government
69. Capital Project Procurement Manual, Construction Policy Steering Committee, 1993, NSW Government
70. C21 Ed 2 Construction Contract Conditions, 1999, NSW Government
71. C21 Ed 2 Construction Subcontract Conditions, 1999, NSW Government

NSW Department of Public Works and Services
72. Your guide to Tendering for NSW Supply Period Contracts, 1998, NSW DPWS
73. Contractor pre-qualification scheme for construction works 1998-2000, Document PWF-0663 7/4/99, NSW DPWS
74. Contractor Best Practice Scheme – Accreditation requirements 1998-2000, Document PWF-0609, NSW DPWS
75. Minor Works – General Conditions of Contract, 1996, NSW Department of Public Works